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Kyllinga nemoralis (J.R. Forst. & G. Forst.) Dandy ex Hutch. & Dalziel

Cyperus kyllingia Endl.

White Water Sedge, Whitehead Spikesedge, White-flowered Kyllinga, Nut Grass

KingdomPlantaePlants, but not fungi, lichens, or algae
SubkingdomTracheobiontaVascular plants—plants with a “circulatory system” for delivering water and nutrients
DivisionMagnoliophytaFlowering plants, also known as angiosperms
ClassLiliopsidaMonocots (plants with a single seed leaf); includes the lily family
SubclassCommelinidaeDayflowers and spiderworts, and several others
OrderCyperalesFlowering plants including grasses
FamilyCyperaceaeSedge family
GenusKyllingaFor Danish botanist Peder Lauridsen Kylling (1640-1696)
SpeciesnemoralisGrowing in groves or woods

About plant names...

This native of Australia (Queensland) and some Pacific islands has become naturalized in Hawaiʻi, where it is con­sidered an alien invasive. It is found in shaded meadows, rock crevices and along roadsides.

Plants: These perennials spread via creeping rhizomes. Their culms are tufted or spaced, standing straight, up to 22" (55 cm) in height. Like other sedges, the culms are triangular in cross-section.

Leaves: Grasslike leaves are linear, almost as long as the culms, ¹/₃₂-⅛" (1.5-3 mm) wide. Leaf sheafs are brown or purple-brown.

Flowers: Flowerheads are roughly spherical, ⅛-⅜" (5-10 mm) around. Usually there is a single flowerhead, but up to three smaller heads may be fused to the largest one. Beneath the flowerhead are 3 or 4 long bracts, grasslike spikes, up to 8" (20 cm) in length.

Medical: White water sedge is used by:

  • Chinese, for colds, bronchitis, malaria, arthritis, and dysentary
  • Malaysians, for diarrhea
  • Polynesians, for joint pain and rheumatic problems
  • (Asian) Indians, for intestinal problems

When a single plant has a wide range of disaparate uses reported, I can’t help but wonder whether any of them are valid. But a 2011 paper, “Kyllinga nemoralis (Hutch & Dalz) (Cyperaceae): Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry and Pharma­cology, summarized: “An exhaustive survey of literature revealed that flavonoids, saponins, phenols, terpenes, lipids and glycosides constitute major classes of phyto­con­stit­uents of this plant. Pharmacological reports revealed that it is having analgesic, antidiabetic, anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective and antimalarial pro­perties.”

These are similar:

 

Kyllinga nemoralis (White Water Sedge, Whitehead Spikesedge, White-flowered Kyllinga, Nut Grass)

8/20/2020 · Puaakaa State Park, Hana Highway, Maui, HI · By Forest and Kim Starr

Kyllinga nemoralis (White Water Sedge, Whitehead Spikesedge, White-flowered Kyllinga, Nut Grass)

8/20/2020 · Puaakaa State Park, Hana Highway, Maui, HI · By Forest and Kim Starr

Kyllinga nemoralis (White Water Sedge, Whitehead Spikesedge, White-flowered Kyllinga, Nut Grass)

9/5/2020 · YMCA, Keanae, Maui, HI · By Forest and Kim Starr

Kyllinga nemoralis (White Water Sedge, Whitehead Spikesedge, White-flowered Kyllinga, Nut Grass)

8/20/2020 · Puaakaa State Park, Hana Highway, Maui, HI · By Forest and Kim Starr

 
Eriophorum vaginatum var. spissum

Eriophorum virginicum

Rhynchospora alba
Common Name

Cotton Sedge

Tawny Cottonsedge

White Beakrush
Plant Stems (culms) are round, oval, or triangular in cross section. The stems are very thin, about ¹/₃₂" (0.3 mm), and densely packed into tussocks. Stems are not branched, hairless, and 16-48" (40-121 cm) in height. They are single, or in small groups, with round or slightly triangular cross sections. Stems are up to 20" (50 cm) in height, round or oval to weakly triangular (“obscurely triangular,” according to one source) in cross-section. They are not branched and hairless, and are cespitose: often occuring in clumps.
Flowers Flowers appear in a compact cluster at the tip of the stem, appearing elliptic at first, then more hemispheric as the plant matures. If you look closely, the numerous flowerheads are arranged in a spiral pattern. The cottony flowerheads are ¾-2" (1.9-5 cm) in size, erect (vs. nodding) and are white (vs. brownish). Although they often look like a single tuft of cotton, the tuft is comprised of 2-10 densely packed spikelet clusters. The lowermost spikelets are wrapped in leafy bracts, like tiny ears of corn. Each spikelet is ⅛-⅜" (6-10 mm) long. Ten or more threadlike bristles—the “cotton”—extend from the base of each flower. The threads eventually become up to ¾" (2 cm) long, usually brown at the base, and somewhere between off white and brown or red-brown as the plant ages. The red-brown color dis­tinguishes tawny cotton-grass from other cotton grasses. (More subtle identifiers include a single stamen per floret instead of 3, and multiple veins on the scales of the seedheads.) Flowers appear from Jun to Sep. White, rounded clusters of spikelets turn light brown with age. Usually there is a single cluster, but there may be one or two additional clusters. Clusters are ⅜-⅞" (1-2.5 cm) in size, comprised of spikelets that are ⅛-³/₁₆" (3.5-5.5 mm) long, and narrowly elliptic: shaped like miniature ears of corn.
Leaves There are a few basal, alternate leaves, and a few higher up, but they are easy to miss amongst the many stems. Each leaf is up to ¹/₃₂" (1 mm) wide, resembling a grass blade, and may be nearly as long as the stem. Alternate, up to 12" (30 cm) long × ¹/₃₂-⅛" (1.5-4 mm) wide. They are linear, flat at the base, becoming triangular in cross section as they approach the tip, with parallel veins. They may be erect, or floppy. Grasslike leaves are flat at the base, becoming triangular in cross-section toward the end, ~¹/₃₂" (0.5-1.5 mm) in width. Sheaths enclosing blades around the culm are closed.
Fruit ¹/₁₆-⅛" (1.9-3.5 mm) long. They are triangular to rounded in cross-section. White bristles around the base of each flower extend in length, becoming ¼-¾" (8.3-19 mm) long, producing the “cotton.” Seeds (achenes) are ¹/₁₆-⅛" (1.9-3.5 mm) long, and shaped like teardrops. They are three-sided when viewed in cross section. Fruits appear from July to September. The achenes are ¹/₁₆-⅛" (2.5-4 mm) long, shaped like a narrow ellipse with a triangular or rounded cross section. They are brown or black. Achenes are lenticular (“lens-shaped”), ~¹/₃₂" (0.9-1.3 mm) wide, narrowing to a stalk at the base. Each spikelet contains one or two achenes. Mature spikelets are brown. A tangle of 9 to 12 bristles surround the base of each spikelet.
Range/ Zones

USDA Zones: 2-6

Habitats Peaty bogs and acidic wetlands. Wet, peaty, acidic soil, such as bogs, damp meadows, and conifer swamps. Bogs, peatlands, floating mats.
Type Wild Wild Wild

 

 
Rhynchospora colorata
You are here
Kyllinga nemoralis
Common Name

Starrush Whitetop

White Water Sedge
Plant Grasslike clumps or solitary plants. Each is topped with a “flower” comprised of 3-10 specialized green and white leaves. The “petals” are really specialized leaves (bracts), each up to 5" (13 cm) × ¹/₁₆-¼" (2-7 mm). Stems are triangular in cross section. These perennials spread via creeping rhizomes. Their culms are tufted or spaced, standing straight, up to 22" (55 cm) in height. Like other sedges, the culms are triangular in cross-section.
Flowers A dense cluster of small spikelets ⅛-¼" (5-7 mm) long, nestled amidst the bracts. Each spikelet is white, ovoid, and contains several tiny flowers. They appear in June and July. Flowerheads are roughly spherical, ⅛-⅜" (5-10 mm) around. Usually there is a single flowerhead, but up to three smaller heads may be fused to the largest one. Beneath the flowerhead are 3 or 4 long bracts, grasslike spikes, up to 8" (20 cm) in length.
Leaves Grasslike, linear, arising from the base of the plant in clusters, spreading or erect, ¹/₃₂-⅛" (0.5-3 mm) wide. Grasslike leaves are linear, almost as long as the culms, ¹/₃₂-⅛" (1.5-3 mm) wide. Leaf sheafs are brown or purple-brown.
Fruit Spikelets mature to a yellow to mahogony color. Each spikelet contains several fruits, each ¹/₃₂-¹/₁₆" (1.5-1.7 mm) in size. Fruits appear in late spring to summer.  
Range/ Zones

USDA Zones: 7-10

Habitats Wet coastal areas, dunes, flatwoods, wet prairies, swales and roadside ditches Shaded meadows, rock crevices and along roadsides. Not native to North America, invasive in Hawai’i.
Type Wild Wild

 

Online References:

Kyllinga nemoralis at HEAR: the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project

Kyllinga nemoralis on earthmedicineinstitute.com

Kyllinga nemoralis on www.sciencedirect.com

Kyllinga nemoralis (White Water Sedge, Whitehead Spikesedge, White-flowered Kyllinga, Nut Grass)

8/20/2020 · Kahului, Maui, HI · By Forest and Kim Starr

Kyllinga nemoralis description by Thomas H. Kent, last updated 16 Sep 2020.

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Range:

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