Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.
Brassica integrifolia (Vahl) O.E.Schulz non Rupr.
Brassica integrifolia Rupr.
Brassica japonica Thunb.
Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. var. crispifolia L.H. Bailey
Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. var. japonica (Thunb.) L.H. Bailey
Brassica willdenowii Boiss.
Sinapis juncea L.
Brown mustard, mustard greens, Indian mustard, Chinese mustard, kai choi
Brown mustard originated in Asia, but has become naturalized throughout North America
Plants: Up to 3' (1 m) tall, with long, erect branches.
Leaves: Lower leaves have petioles (stems), are green but sometimes with a whitish covering, ovate to obovate, with various undulating margins that might be called toothed, scalloped, or frilled. Upper leaves are on shorter stems or sessile, 1-2" (3-6 cm) × ¹/₁₆-⅛" (2-3.5 mm), sometimes constricted, thinning to a short seedless beak ⅛-⅜" (5-10 mm) long.
Flowers: Flowers are pale yellow, a bit scraggly, with four petals, about ½" (1.3 cm) around. They appear in June.
Fruits: Fruits are shaped like thin beans, ½-1½" (1.5-4 cm) long. Seeds are miniscule: there are well over 15,000 in an ounce.
Edibility: Leaves, flowers, and young flowering stems are peppery flavored, eaten raw or cooked. Seeds are used to create prepared brown mustard. Brown mustard shows up in various forms in a wide variety of Asian, African, and American cuisines.
Brassica juncea at Purdue University's Center for New Crops and Plants Products
Brassica juncea on Plants for a Future, a resource and information centre for edible and otherwise useful plants
Brassica juncea description by Thomas H. Kent, last updated 25 May 2020.
Range: Zones 2-11: